In the 20th century the five states have continued to occupy a central position in world political controversies.
Chinese decorative arts of the 18th century were of technical excellence.
By the century‘s end, their struggle had boiled over in the epochal Napoleonic Wars.
These states were losing ground to Britain and France, which during the 18th century outpaced all European rivals and fought for hegemony in North America and India.
In the 18th century the balance of world power and influence began to shift momentously.
The complex is 18th century rococo.
Voltaire, the great international figure of the 18th century.
The university maintains two medieval churches and a 17th century library, which contains collections of rare books and manuscripts.
In the 19th century, when the term was first used, it usually designated the territory under the direct or indirect control of the Ottoman empire after the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699); it did not include the lands held by the Habsburg empire before 1918 that are now integral parts of Balkan states.
This article outlines the development and growth of the Russian Orthodox Church from the time of the earliest conversions to Christianity in the 9th century up to the present day.
The Safavid order, founded in 1301, became a revolutionary Müslim Shiite movement in the 15th century.
The northern slopes and piedmont of the Caucasus fail within the Russian federated republic, reflecting the predominance of the Russians, who moved into this area starting in the 18th century. Lavish designs in gold leaf frame a miniature painting on the cover of an 18-th century French binding. An Italian binding of the 16th century is decorated with intricately carved panels on both covers.
Twentieth century decorative binding, with leather inlays boldly outlined in gold leaf on undyed goatskin.