Voltaire, the great international figure of the 18th century.
In the 19th century, when the term was first used, it usually designated the territory under the direct or indirect control of the Ottoman empire after the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699); it did not include the lands held by the Habsburg empire before 1918 that are now integral parts of Balkan states.
This article outlines the development and growth of the Russian Orthodox Church from the time of the earliest conversions to Christianity in the 9th century up to the present day.
The Safavid order, founded in 1301, became a revolutionary Müslim Shiite movement in the 15th century.
The northern slopes and piedmont of the Caucasus fail within the Russian federated republic, reflecting the predominance of the Russians, who moved into this area starting in the 18th century. Lavish designs in gold leaf frame a miniature painting on the cover of an 18-th century French binding. An Italian binding of the 16th century is decorated with intricately carved panels on both covers.
Twentieth century decorative binding, with leather inlays boldly outlined in gold leaf on undyed goatskin.